The EMW 340 is a car of the Eisenach plant engines . The EMW 340 is an evolved BMW 326, which was provided with a revised front and rear. This was in the following years more advanced than EMW 340-2 and as combi built in small numbers.

History of the EMW 340

Before the EMW 340

On 3 July 1945, Eisenach was part of the Soviet occupation zone. Since the dismantled threatened state led by Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov, he made Albert Seidler (director of motorcycle production). Zhukov asked for the construction of five new cars.

They commanded number 93 to "Ensure the delivery of said out new cars and motorcycles in the automotive and machine factory state" in November 1945, the production was for war reparations to the Soviet Union was added again. This required every 3000 car type "321" and motorcycle type " R 35".

By decision of the country's president of Thuringia in September 1945, all operating systems had been expropriated. Corresponding contradictions from Munich were answered as follows: "[The contradictions] can be evaluated only when the robbery claims again today in West Germany in a leading position of German imperialism standing monopolists and warmongers the BMW Munich.

On 15 September 1946, the plant was incorporated into the company SAA.

The EMW 340

Already in 1948 in the former BMW factory in Eisenach, the new "EMW 340" was developed. Building on the "BMW 326" from 1936 and the two-door version of "321" were during the development of the EMW 340 changed mainly the hood and the rear. At the front, the headlights in the fenders and integrated the typical BMW kidney grille was replaced by a group consisting of horizontal metal bars.The hood folded no longer along the longitudinal axis to the center to go, but after a front piece. The tail has been changed so that the trunk, which was reached at the old BMW models only by folding the rear seat from the inside, now accessible through a trunk lid from the outside was. It had been mounted on the rear, the spare wheel can be stored under a timber shelf in the trunk. In this subject were also some "Break-down tool" such as Jack and the air pump housed.

Another tool was included in a removable tool box, which was located in the engine compartment. It included one at the hose as well as a special key for the brake bleeder.

After the vehicle had been developed in a very short time, several copies were on a 10,000-kilometer test drive were sent on their way. This was put into effective advertising scene. Following the successful completion of this journey began the series production. Here, a major problem became apparent: there were many of the old pre-supplier factories now in West Germany. Consequently, many parts had now made ​​themselves or other suppliers be found. Another problem was the poor quality of supplied parts.Despite efforts to remedy the defect itself, one was dependent on supplies from the West. Since these were not always regular, was also sometimes silent production.

An attempt was made to supply and produce (?) within Western European markets. However, there have been quality problems, and therefore some were returned to the customer from ignorance, but mostly for repair at BMW Munich. One reason BMW in Munich were the BMW cars and motorcycles from an East German production an eyesore (ran her own production also slow at first), so that it came to a lawsuit.

With the judgment of the District Court Düsseldorf 17thNovember 1950 threatened the seizures foreign exchange compromising if they would produce in Eisenach continue under the name of BMW. According to various sources were from 1 July 1952 no BMW but only EMW emblems mounted on the vehicles, at least for the Western export vehicles. The vehicles that were included in the "socialist countries", should be some time BMW emblems have been mounted.

From BMW EMW was therefore, out of the blue and white propeller, a red and white logo. In 1951 the factory was then as state-owned enterprise to the automotive industry association affiliated (IFA). In 1953, the factory was renamed VEB automobile plant in Eisenach.

EMW as trademarks ended with the production setting the car types "340/2" and "327/3" and the motorcycle "R35 / 3" in 1955.

Eisenach was then on the government statement developed in Zwickau, with two-stroke engine provided IFA F9 and then from that of developed Wartburg manufactured. Motorcycle production was stopped after a planned economy statement because in Thuringia Suhl early as 1950, the AWO 425 with four-stroke engine and the Saxon Zschopau MZ were made ​​two-stroke motorcycles.



When the engine is an inline 6-cylinder 1971 cc engine. This is equipped with two BVF (Berlin carburetor factory) IFA (TYPE F323-1) or Solex carburetors (TYPE I 32PB with accelerator pump .) It is to downdraft carburetor . With these, the engine 55 and later 57 hp.

The interesting thing about this engine is the oil filter . From today's perspective, the unusual structure of the disk filter is driven by the clutch pedal. The filter plates are where the soil freezes. In the center of the filter to an axis diameter are mounted along the run in the gaps between the plates and scraping the dirt, which then falls down. Upon each actuation of the clutch pedal is connected via a linkage, and a ratchet mechanism moves the axis, and thus the diameter somewhat further. At regular intervals on the underside of the filter, a drain plug is unscrewed, and the dirt discharged. For the fuel delivery a mechanical diaphragm pump is used.


At EMW 340 is pretty much the same gear is used just as it did at the BMW 326 . This has four passages, one of which are first and second equipped with a freewheel. In contrast to the transmission of the BMW 326, it is to no longer operate a stick shift, but a steering column circuit. To a rod and a cable or wire were interposed. However ripped the wire frequently, which is why some vehicles were again converted to stick shift. The driving force is a cardan shaft transferred to the rear axle and thus to the rear wheels.

Cooling and Heating

The engine cooling is done by a water cooled, as is the case with most of today's cars is the case. However, here, with a few differences. To ensure a rapid heating of the cooling water and to prevent subsequent overheating of the engine, the driver must lend a hand. It is located in front of the cooler one shutter, which one rod from the dashboard is opened out or closed. This can more or less air flow through the cooler, thereby increasing the operating temperature of the engine or reduced. The driver is held to keep the water temperature at 80 degrees Celsius as possible.

If no antifreeze was introduced, the cooling water in the winter months had to be drained at frost. If you wanted to then go by car, you must have had hot water in the engine with open drain valve until the engine was warm. Even after long periods of the vehicle, i.e., if it was not used for several days, you should crank the engine only a few times with the crank so that the engine oil could spread again in the engine.

A heating of the BMW 340 was inexistent. Only with the revision of the vehicle and the change in the type designation 340-2 was a heating system was installed. Here, too, was the ease of use is not as far as we know it today: To turn on the heater, first of all had to be a shut-off valve in the engine compartment must be turned up. Was then adjusted using the switchable electric fan blower and a control valve in the front passenger footwell.

Axles, Suspension and Steering

In the front, there is an axis of a cross member in which a leaf spring is fitted. Here both wheels are connected via a rotary joint mounted, it does so, the lower wheel control . The upper wheel guide is provided by a control arm, which is also called Stoßdämpferarm is used. The shock absorbers are mounted on top of the axle. It is to lever damper . In these, the pushing movement is transmitted to a shaft of Stoßdämpferarm the shock to which a finger is mounted. It moves in an oil-filled chamber in the damper. In motion, he pushes the oil away to the side, in which it is moving through channels. The oil flows through the channels to the other chamber side, wherein the flow rate is limited by adjustable valves. Due to the resulting pressure, a shock absorption is achieved.

The rigid rear axle consists of two pressed and welded together halves. In it are also the differential and the wheel drive shafts accommodated. In the middle of it is still guided by a guide triangle. The suspension is provided by two built-in the vehicle longitudinal direction of torsion . They are each performed by a shock absorber to the vehicle floor screwed. Also here is lever damper. Meanwhile Stoßdämpferarm also serves as a control arm for the rear axle and is therefore also the wheel control.For motion compensation is one ball joint in between. All major joints on the chassis were using a central lubrication, which had to be operated every 50 kilometers, lubricated with oil.


The body is a self-supporting all-steel body with a few pieces of wood, which are primarily meant for attaching the interior trim.

Only the roof opening is closed by a paneled wooden struts framework which is constructed (from top to bottom):

  • Leatherette upholstery
  • Wire mesh
  • Wooden scaffold
  • Headliner

The front and rear windows are each divided, that they are each in two parts. In the front window should initially Ausstellmechanismen be used, which was not, however, according to official documents taken into production. After the two small hinged rear doors are fitted.


Early models have twin front and rear seats, a continuous bench seat with a fold-down armrest. Later models have a solid front bench seat, which eliminates rear armrest. This is probably due to the fact that the car mainly for police and authorities was used.

In addition, the fleet of state-owned taxi companies existed until the end of the 1950s for the most part from the type EMW 340 - in contrast to the few licensed private taxi companies that drove were routinely pre-war models (Opel).

For export models often closed with a folding roof instead of synthetic leather roof opening was blocked. A radio was delivered as a special request.

In the glove compartment lid, a mechanical clock was installed, which was several days after a single winding.