The Matra MS1 was the first Formula One racing car made by Matra from 1965.

The Matra MS1 was in all respects, a conventional formula race acr. As Matra quickly wanted to achieve success in international motor racing, the company borrowed the design of a British Formula 3 race car to help achieve as much as possible. The vehicle had conventional wheel suspension and a Cosworth engine. This was an innovation insofar as the previous race cars, still under the leadership of René Bonnet, were constructed Renault engines mounted in the rear.

The MS1 was a test car that Matra used to test the technical possibilities of a Formula race car. The tanks were moved to the side panels, which were supported by cross bars. This design made for an excellent stability of the racing cars. The MS1 was the basis for the race car, the MS5.