Morgan 4/4

The Morgan 4/4 was the Morgan Motor Company's first car with four wheels. It appeared in 1936. Its model designation "4-4" (later "4/4") stood for four wheels and four cylinders. Earlier Morgans had been three-wheelers, only, typically with V-twin engines. Apart from a break during World War II (and the period March 1951 to September 1955) the 4/4 has been in continuous production from its debut right up to the present day. Engine capacity has increased from the 1122 cc Coventry Climax engine in 1936 to a 1.8-litre Ford engine in 2004.

4-4 Two-Seater

The original open 2-seater 4-4 was introduced in 1936 and was the most popular of the three body options available with 663 were built by 1939 and 249 from 1946 to 1950.

For the first years the car had a 1,122 cc Coventry Climax engine with 34 bhp (25 kW; 34 PS), superseded from 1939 by a Standard Special 1267 cc overhead valve engine with 38.8 bhp (29 kW; 39 PS). A four-speed Meadows gearbox was used until 1938, then a Moss gearbox.

4-4 Four-Seater

The four-seat version was introduced in 1937 and 99 were built by 1939 and a further 140 from 1946 to 1950.

4-4 Drophead Coupé

The coupé was introduced in 1938 with 58 built by 1939 and another 106 from 1946 to 1950.

4/4 Series II

The Series II, now the 4/4 rather than the 4-4, was introduced in 1955 with 386 built by October 1960. Although very similar in appearance to the old 4-4 it was virtually a new car with a chassis based on the one used in the Morgan Plus 4. The traditional independent front suspension using sliding pillars and coil springs was fitted with a rigid axle and semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. Disc wheels were fitted as standard items.

A side-valve 1172 cc Ford 100E engine was used with a Ford three-speed gearbox. The engine produced 36 bhp[2]. Hydraulic brakes with 9 in (229 mm) drums were fitted. It was also available in 40 bhp (30 kW; 41 PS) 'Competition' form with Aquaplane head conversion, twin S.U. carburettors, and an improved gearshift linkage.

Inside there was a bench seat back and individual squabs covered in PVC, with leather as an option, and rubber floor covering. A heater was available as an option as was a rev counter and more surprisingly, direction indicators.

In 1956 The Motor magazine tested a Series II and recorded a top speed of 75.3 mph (121.2 km/h), acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 26.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 35.1 miles per imperial gallon (8.05 L/100 km; 29.2 mpg-US). The test car cost £713 including taxes.

4/4 Series III

The Series III was introduced in October 1960 and 58 were built by November 1961. The chassis was essentially the same as that used on the Series II but the track was increased by 2 inches (50 mm). Hydraulic shock absorbers replaced the old Hartford friction type.

A 39 bhp (29 kW; 40 PS) overhead valve 997 cc Ford Anglia 105E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used.

4/4 Series IV

The Series IV introduced October 1961 with 114 built by March 1963 had a 62 bhp, 1340 cc, Ford Classic 109E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox. Front 11 in (279 mm) disc brakes were now fitted.

The Motor magazine tested a Series IV in 1962 and found it had a top speed of 80.3 mph (129.2 km/h), acceleration from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 18.6 seconds and a touring fuel consumption of 32.0 miles per imperial gallon (8.83 L/100 km; 26.6 mpg-US). The test car cost £729 including taxes on the home market.

4/4 Series V

The Series V was introduced in February 1963 with 639 built by March 1968.

A 65 bhp, 1498 cc, Ford Cortina 116E engine and Ford four-speed gearbox were used.

4/4 1600

The car was further updated in 1968 to become the 1600 with two- and four-seat open bodies available.

Ford Kent Crossflow engine

The 4/4 1600 was introduced in February 1968 fitted with a variety of Ford 1599 cc Kent engines of type 2737E (70 bhp), type 2737GT (95.5 bhp) and type 2265E (95.5 bhp) from 1971 and a Ford four-speed gearbox.

A total of 3513 were built by March 1982.

Fiat Twin-Cam engine

Introduced in November 1981 was a 98 bhp (73 kW; 99 PS) Fiat 1584 cc twin-cam engine and five-speed Fiat gearbox.

96 were built by November 1985.

Ford CVH engine

Introduced in March 1982 with a Ford 1597 cc CVH engine and Ford four-speed gearbox until 1984, then a Ford five-speed gearbox from Ford Sierra. From 1986 steering was changed from the original cam and peg to a Gemmer recirculating ball system.

1652 were built by November 1991.