The Toyota Camry is a series of mid-size (originally compact) automobiles manufactured by Toyota since 1982, and sold in the majority of automotive markets throughout the world. Between 1980 and 1982, the "Camry" nameplate was delegated to a four-door sedan, known as the Toyota Celica Camry.
The name "Camry" is an Anglicized phonetic transcription of the Japanese word kanmuri (冠, かんむり), meaning "crown". This follows Toyota's naming tradition of using the crown name for primary models starting with the Toyota Crown in 1955, continuing with the Toyota Corona and Corolla; the Latin words for "crown" and "small crown", respectively.
The Camry is the best-selling car in North America. The Camry also sells very well in Australia, and a number of Asian markets. Despite international success, the Camry has not sold as well in its home market Japan, or in Europe, where sales ended in 2004.For the East and Southeast Asian markets, high-specification Camry models are seen as executive cars. Since the XV30 series, the Camrys sold in these markets have sported revised front- and rear-end treatment. For the 2006 onwards XV40 version, the same was done, although the Australian-designed and Camry-derived Toyota Aurion (XV40) was the donor model. The Aurion features revised front- and rear-end styling and changes to the interior, but has the same powertrains as the Camry in various markets.
Toyota's Camry originated in January 1980 as a four-door sedan approximate to the Toyota Celica coupe and liftback. Known as the "Celica Camry" and sold only in Japan at Toyota Corolla Store retail dealerships, the four-door shared few components with the model from which its name derives. Instead, Toyota elongated the front-end of the Carina (A40, A50), incorporating styling cues to resemble the 1978–1981 Celica XX (known as the Celica Supra in export markets).
Camry became an independent model line in 1982 with the V10 series, available in four-door sedan and five-door liftback body styles. At this point, Camry, now an international model line, was positioned above the Carina and Corona, two other similar-sized vehicles manufactured by Toyota at the time. The Camry V10 also spawned a badge engineered equivalent, the Vista V10, a more luxurious version of the Camry sold in the Japanese market.
The Camry V20 model debuted in 1986, following much the same formula as its predecessor. Although the liftback body variant was substituted with a station wagon, the Vista derivative continued. When Toyota replaced the V20 in 1990 with the V30, the model series was exclusive to Japan. Automotive tax regulations in that country dictated the retention of a narrower body as utilized in the previous Camry generations. However, overseas demand for a larger Camry resulted in the development of a "wide-body" XV10 model, introduced to North America in 1991.Japan also received this wider model, although it was sold under the "Toyota Scepter" name there.
The Japanese market received a new narrow-body V40 series Camry in 1994 to replace V30, yet the wide-body XV10 Camry continued unchanged. The XV10 replacement, the XV20 Camry, arrived in 1996. This new model ceased the era of separate Camrys—a global Camry—and a smaller Japanese-only version. In Japan, the smaller Vista V50 took up the former V40 Camry role after 1998.
The design of the first-generation Camry fit well within the box-shaped trends of the early 1980s. Additionally, the vehicle size and available options were characteristic of Japanese-designed cars of the time; the Camry was a compact sedan, with a solid but spartan construction and competed indirectly against larger American counterparts.Introduced in 1982, the Camry V10 was sold as a compact four-door sedan and five-door liftback. Unlike the preceding Celica Camry, the V10 series Camry was exported in significant numbers. In the Toyota hierarchy, the Camry was situated above the comparably sized Toyota Carina and Corona. A twin was announced at this point—the Toyota Vista—a highly specified Camry derivative model sold through separate Toyota Vista Store dealerships in Japan.
In North America, the Camry was available with a 68-kilowatt (91 hp) (SAE) 2.0-liter 2S-ELC engine, 1.8-liter 1C-TLC or a 2.0-liter 2C-TLCturbodiesel engine rated at 55 kilowatts (74 hp). Either a four-door sedan or five-door liftback body style could be specified, and could be purchased with either a five-speed manual transmission or a four-speed A140E automatic. In contrast to the rear-wheel drive Celica Camry, the Toyota Camry was a front-wheel drive vehicle built on an all-new platform.
North American-bound V10 Camrys were available in DX and LE trim levels. LE models included additional standard features such as body-colored bumpers, tachometer, upgraded stereo, power mirrors, variable intermittent wipers, et cetera. A minor model update in 1985 included new headlights, taillight update, new gauge fonts, slightly larger front seats, and larger center glove box. The cruise control switchgear on models equipped as such were relocated from the dash to the wiper stalk. DX trim tire size also increased from 165 to 185 millimetres (6.5 to 7.3 in), the same width as the LE trim.
In Australia, the Camry range was limited to a single-grade GLi liftback variant. The sole powertrain offered was the petrol-fueled 2.0-liter (77 kW engine) coupled with a five-speed manual or four-speed automatic transmission.
The United Kingdom, and much of Continental Europe got the sedan and liftback versions: these were available in 1.8-liter GLi or 2.0-liter GLi trim levels. A 2.0-liter GLD turbodiesel was also offered.
The second Camry model premiered in 1986, this time including a four-door hardtop and five-door station wagon, while dropping the liftback body style. The hardtop version was sold only in the Japanese market under the "Camry Prominent" name. Like the previous V10 model, there was again a parallel model for the home market, the Vista V20. The Vista was offered in the sedan and hardtop configurations, with the hardtop forming the basis for the Lexus ES 250 sold in North America from 1989 through to 1991.
In 1988, an all-wheel drive system dubbed All-Trac was introduced and a 2.5-liter 118 kW (158 hp) (JIS) V6 engine were added as options for the first time. The V6 was fuel-injected with 24 valves, and dual overhead camshafts, much like the upgraded 96 kilowatts (129 hp) JIS four-cylinder engine. In Japan there was a GT model using the older 3S-GE engine as used on the Celica. This particular model also had a factory strut brace similar to an AE92 Corolla and rode on the V6 model's 15 inch alloy wheels. This particular model also had an electronic instrument cluster.
In 1987, Toyota Australia began producing these second-generation Camrys in Port Melbourne, Victoria. In fact, it was the first Camry ever made outside of Japan. A 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine rated at 64 kilowatts (86 hp) was standard on the base model, while a twin-cam, multi-valve 2.0-liter straight-four engine and five-speed manual transmission was available on all others. A four-speed overdrive automatic was made optional. All models bar the Ultima had a two-barrel carburettor version of the engine (3S-FC); the Ultima featured an electronic fuel-injected(EFI) version of the same (3S-FE). The base engine produced 82 kilowatts (110 hp) and 166 newton metres (122 lb·ft) of torque, with 88 kilowatts (118 hp) and 171 newton metres (126 ft·lbf) for the EFI version. In 1988, a 2.5-liter V6 was introduced. The V6 sat the very top of the range, and was the only model to be imported from Japan. Due to its positioning in the line-up, and the high import duty it attracted, it was very expensive (almost A$30,000), and only sold in small numbers. In 1989, the 1.8-liter engine was dropped, and was replaced with the 2.0-liter carbureted engine, until early 1991, when the EFI version of was made standard. This was the result of the introduction of more stringent emission standards in Australia.
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, the first wholly owned US Toyota plant, began producing the Camry in 1988, where three trim levels of the second-generation Camry were made: the unbadged base model, the DX, and the LE. The country of manufacture can be found by looking at the first character of the VIN. A Camry manufactured in Japan has a VIN starting with "J", a model made in the US starts with "4" and a model made in Australia starts with "6".
The 2.5-liter engine and Camry chassis was repackaged as the upscale Lexus ES 250. The ES 250 was essentially the Japanese-market Camry hardtop. In 1991, anti-lock brakesbecame optional on the V6, LE, and station wagon models.