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The Volvo B59 was a rear-engined bus chassis produced by Volvo in Sweden from 1970 until 1980, which features a 10-litre straight-6 diesel engine.

The first Volvo B59 was delivered to the Københavns Sporveje (The City Transport Authority in Copenhagen, Denmark) in 1970, and was fitted with a bodywork built by Aabenraa Karrosserifabrik, based in Aabenraa. Originally ran as a prototype, it came later in ordinary service, as KS #531. It was bought by Volvo for preservation at the Volvo Museum in Gothenburg, Sweden after withdrawal.

In Melbourne of Australia, the Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Board purchased 100 Volvo B59 buses with unique Ansair bodies. These buses were originally painted orange, however a majority of B59s were repainted into the Metropolitan Transit Authority's green and yellow livery during the mid to late-1980s and early-1990s. Most of these buses were retired by 2000 with most sold to party bus operators and companies in Queensland.

South Australia was also a large recipient of the Volvo B59. 307 units entered service between 1977 and 1979 (1001-1307) with the State Transport Authority, 3 additional chassis were supplied. All were delievred in a striking silver livery, the only exception to their liveries are that of 1294-1304 which for a period of time became 294-304 (1300/300 the first to run the in this livery) and painted into Circle Line route 100 colours of orange and white, ex 1200 wore serco livery of blue, red, grey and white after privatisation in 1996 and ended service in 2000, later to be preserved, 1292 wore the Corporate livery of Transadelaide with blue and red speed stripes over a white base, any other liveries are all over advertising. 1002 returned to Sweden in the early 1980s to demonstrate how 'we do it'. Their final phasing out ended in 2003 after many years servicing Adelaide streets, their red vinyl seats and silver bodywork saw a real era end when they left.

Only one was built to UK specification this was VEB566L, fitted with a Marshall Camair B48D body for Ailsa Bus, the UK Volvo dealers, it demonstrated across the country but with the Leyland National available and a patriotic mainly public sector market for urban buses no orders ensued. Subsequent operators included Parks of Hamilton and Stag Garage of Lochgilphead.

A trolleybus version of Volvo B59 was also built. A batch of 17 vehicles, fitted with Ansaldo electric equipment and Mauri bodywork, was delivered to ATAM of Italian city Rimini between 1975 and 1978, for use on the Rimini–Riccione trolleybus line.

Its successor was the Volvo B10R.